Master Program in California in the USA

Best Master's Programs in California in the USA 2017

Master

A masters refers to the completion of a graduate study program that prepares students to further their knowledge of a specific subject or advance their careers. The majority of masters are granted by state or public universities.

Applied arts are essential to making pleasing designs in all areas of life. Without them, the world would be incredibly boring. A Master in Applied Arts gives you a deeper understanding of the use of art in these practical fields.

The United States of America is a large country in North America, often referred to as the "USA", the "US", the "United States", "America", or simply "the States". American colleges are funded by "tuition" charged to the student, which is often quite expensive, very commonly reaching into the tens of thousands of dollars per year.

California has the highest population amongst all US states with an economy rivaling entire countries. It is home to the largest university system in the United States.

Master Degrees in California in the USA

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Master of Business Statistics

Hult International Business School
Campus Full time August 2017 USA San Francisco Cambridge New York Boston + 3 more

As the role of big data becomes increasingly important, a one-year Hult Master of Business Statistics degree equips you with the analytical and business capability to translate data statistics and analysis into action. [+]

Top Master's Degrees in California in the USA. This program is only available as a second part of the Dual Degree Program, after students have completed One-year MBA or Masters of International Business. It will be available as a full time one-year program in San Francisco for the September 2018 start term. Learn how to translate big data and analysis into action—and qualify for a 3-year OPT working visa in the U.S. As the role of big data becomes increasingly important, a one-year Hult Master of Business Statistics degree equips you with the analytical and business capability to translate data statistics and analysis into action. Locations Start your Master of Business Statistics in San Francisco, then choose to take electives at any other two campuses as part of Hult's unique Global Campus Rotation. Your Master of Business Statistics at a glance Who is this program for? For candidates who have recently graduated from university or college, as well as individuals with up to three years of work experience who want to influence business decisions and strategy through harnessing the predictive capabilities of data and business analytics. Non-U.S. residents who receive a Master of Business Statistics will also qualify for up to three years of OPT (Optional Practical Training) in the U.S. after their studies. OPT is normally 12 months, so the degree is particularly well-suited to those hoping to experience work in the U.S. after their degree. For more details, please contact us. What you’ll learn Companies such as Google,... [-]

Master of Finance

Rady School of Management
Campus Full time 12 - 15  September 2018 USA La Jolla

The Rady School is in a unique position to offer a Master of Finance that emphasizes quantitative methods, empirical work and financial econometrics. UC San Diego has a rich tradition in empirical and theoretical econometrics. Some of the most widely-used empirical models developed from the research of UC San Diego faculty. The emphasis on rigorous empirical data-driven methods differentiates the Rady School’s Master of Finance from programs specializing in financial engineering. [+]

The STEM Designated Master of Finance program at UC San Diego's Rady School of Management prepares graduates to tackle significant challenges facing the financial sector. Rady School Master of Finance graduates have secured positions with organizations such as Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan Chase, Altegris, CITIC Securities, Drobny Capital, Rayliant Global Advisors, Gurtin Municipal Bond Management, PhoenixMart, Meritco Services, Dimensional Fund Advisors, UBS, and Stanford University. The Home of Econometrics The Rady School is in a unique position to offer a Master of Finance that emphasizes quantitative methods, empirical work and financial econometrics. UC San Diego has a rich tradition in empirical and theoretical econometrics. Some of the most widely-used empirical models developed from the research of UC San Diego faculty. The emphasis on rigorous empirical data-driven methods differentiates the Rady School’s Master of Finance from programs specializing in financial engineering. Our Faculty Shaped the Industry The Rady School of Management’s Master of Finance degree provides rigorous, hands-on training preparing graduates to immediately contribute in environments where quantitative and analytical skills are at a premium. You will learn leading-edge methods for analyzing "big data" for financial decision making and risk management. The program’s emphasis on quantitative models and methods ensures graduates are equipped to develop innovative solutions to the complex problems facing the financial industry. Admissions Master of Finance applicants will have exceptional quantitative skills, strong interest in the analytical foundations of finance and of risk management, and a desire to have an impact in the financial sector. Schedule Options Students... [-]

Joint Masters in Public Administration & Masters in International Education Management

Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Monterey

The Joint MPA / MA in International Education Management program prepares students to be leaders at the intersection of education, development, and international exchange. Rather than earning a single Master of Public Administration, students earn two degrees: an MPA and an MA in International Education Management. [+]

Top Master's Degrees in California in the USA. The Joint MPA / MA in International Education Management program prepares students to be leaders at the intersection of education, development, and international exchange. Rather than earning a single Master of Public Administration, students earn two degrees: an MPA and an MA in International Education Management. The joint-degree program offers a multidisciplinary approach to education within the international development context. Students gain practical skills and tools while building in-depth management competencies for educational settings of all types. Curriculum In five semesters, students earn a Master of Public Administration (MPA) and an MA in International Education Management. Our distinctive program features four semesters of coursework and a one-semester professional practicum in the international education field. You will have access to faculty members who are experts in fields such as international enrollment, education development, and consulting. Content-based learning in the language of your choice is built into the core courses of both degrees. Career Outcomes Our graduates work in a range of professional capacities at universities, colleges, governmental, and nongovernmental education organizations, including: Assistant director Enrollment marketing manager International student advisor and SEVIS coordinator Team development specialist International education consultant Scholarships and Financial Aid To apply for merit or need-based scholarships, submit your online application for the International Education Management program by the next priority deadline. Both U.S. and international students are eligible. We don't cap the amount we award, and highly qualified students may receive a merit scholarship covering full tuition. We give... [-]

Master of Laws (LLM) - Cybersecurity & Data Privacy Specialization

Loyola Law School
Campus Full time August 2017 USA Los Angeles

The Cybersecurity & Data Privacy LLM Specialization at Loyola Law School, Los Angeles offers students a slate of classes and experiential learning opportunities to prepare them for the evolving legal demands presented by emerging technology. [+]

The Cybersecurity & Data Privacy LLM Specialization at Loyola Law School, Los Angeles offers students a slate of classes and experiential learning opportunities to prepare them for the evolving legal demands presented by emerging technology. The first of its kind on the West Coast, this specialization draws on Loyola’s traditional strengths in areas like technology, criminal justice, data privacy, and IP law. The Cybersecurity & Data Privacy LLM Specialization features professors and practitioners with unique expertise in the spheres of Silicon Beach, cybercrime law enforcement and engineering and it capitalizes on the expertise of national security and related sectors based in Los Angeles. The specialization integrates the range of already existing cybersecurity classes, including Cyber & IP Crimes, IP in the Digital Age, and Technology & Privacy, and it includes brand new courses such as Incident Response & Investigation, and Cybersecurity & Regulatory Compliance. The curriculum is based on recommendations from Loyola’s Cybersecurity and Data Privacy Advisory Group, which includes Wesley Hsu, Executive Assistant U.S. Attorney, Cyber and IP Crimes Section, Los Angeles; Robert Kang, Senior Regulatory and Cybersecurity Counsel, Southern California Edison Company; Jason Smolanoff, former Supervisory Special Agent, FBI Cyber National Security squad; and Nazmul Ula, Associate Dean for Graduate Studies & External affairs, Seaver College, LMU. Required Courses (11 units) Cyber & IP Crimes (2) Internet Law (2) Technology & Privacy (3) (online) Cybersecurity & Regulatory Compliance (2) Incident Response & Investigation (2) [-]

Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology

Santa Clara University - School Of Education & Counseling Psychology
Campus Full time August 2017 USA Santa Clara

The Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology provides an intensive 90-unit Master of Arts program for students. Students may opt to include any of our three emphasis areas in Correctional Psychology, Health Psychology, or Latino Counseling to their degree. An emphasis functions like a minor. Students not electing an emphasis may choose from a variety of electives to expand their knowledge in various areas. [+]

Top Master's Degrees in California in the USA. Units: 90 quarter units (3 quarter units = 2 semester units) Program Length: 3 years(full-time) Tracks: LPCC, MFT, LPCC/MFT, and No Track Emphasis Options: Latino counseling, correctional psychology, and health psychology Start Dates: Fall, Winter, Spring, or Summer Instructional Method: On campus The Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology provides an intensive 90-unit Master of Arts program for students. Students may opt to include any of our three emphasis areas in Correctional Psychology, Health Psychology, or Latino Counseling to their degree. An emphasis functions like a minor. Students not electing an emphasis may choose from a variety of electives to expand their knowledge in various areas. The Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology has four tracks: MFT Track LPCC Track Joint MFT/LPCC Track No Track MFT Track The California Board of Behavioral Sciences bases the MFT Track on California State regulations, guidelines suggested by the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, and the California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists, and curriculum approval. Students choosing this track are qualified to sit for a MFT license exam after completing course work, practicum, and clinical hours in the State of California. Click here for Course Sequence LPCC Track The California Board of Behavioral Sciences bases the LPCC Track on California State regulations, guidelines from the California Coalition for Counselor Licensure, and curriculum approval. Students choosing this track are qualified to sit for a LPCC license exam after completing course work, practicum, and clinical... [-]

MA School Counseling

University of San Francisco - School of Education
Campus Full time September 2017 USA San Francisco

Preparing School Counselors to be Social Justice Agents of Change in Urban Schools [+]

The 49 credit School Counseling program meets requirements recently issued by the California State Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) for those seeking a career in school counseling in K-12 schools. OPTION: After their first semester at USF, students enrolled in the 49-credit School Counseling/Pupil Personnel Services (PPS) Credential Program have the option to enroll in a 60-credit Dual Concentration Program in School Counseling and Professional Clinical Counseling. Graduates of the program obtain a Master of Arts (M.A.) degree and are eligible for the Pupil Personnel Services (PPS) Credential. They may be employed: - in public or private educational settings, - in community-based agencies, - as consultants to schools, education programs, and other institutions serving the educational needs of youth. They also may choose to pursue a doctoral degree. Program Description The School Counseling program is a unique, innovative educational program for preparing counselors to address the social, emotional, and academic needs of children, adolescents, and young adults in educational settings. The program emphasizes: - multicultural youth development and counseling - problem-solving, goal-oriented, counseling - social justice orientation - ecological systems in urban contexts Students learn theories and effective, pragmatic interventions with youth in schools. The program has a social justice orientation which seeks to foster equity, respect for diversity, creativity, compassion and community empowerment. “When asked if I feel ‘ready’ to enter the field of school counseling, I always reflect on how the USF School Counseling Program has prepared me to work with the universal issues faced by adolescents as... [-]

Graduate Architecture Degrees

NewSchool of Architecture and Design
Campus Full time 2 - 3  October 2017 USA San Diego

NewSchool offers multiple graduate programs in architecture to address the unique needs of our industry. Many of our programs are NAAB accredited. NewSchool can choose to focus their studies in either Neuroscience for Architecture or Healthy Urbanism. [+]

Top Master's Degrees in California in the USA. NewSchool offers multiple graduate programs in architecture to address the unique needs of our industry. Many of our programs are NAAB accredited. Upon requesting more information our Enrollment Specialist can explain the different program offerings in more detail to help you find the path that is right for you. The Master of Architecture I degree is a NAAB accredited degree that prepares students to pursue state architecture licensure. The program is divided into two tracks depending on the student’s educational background. Students who have a bachelors in architecture from a program that was not NAAB accredited can complete the program in two years. Students who have a bachelor’s degree in an unrelated field will spend an additional year learning the foundations of architecture and complete the degree in three years. The Master of Architecture II degree gives students who have already completed a NAAB accredited bachelor’s degree the opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of design principles and theory. Students gain the academic credentials and practical experience it takes to pursue a rewarding career in teaching as well as similar occupations. Master of Science in Architecture From urban planning to interior design, many professions today benefit from in-depth study of architecture. The Master of Science in Architecture at NewSchool is designed for students who want to enrich their knowledge of the field but don’t plan to pursue architectural licensing. The program is open to students who have completed a bachelor’s degree in... [-]

Master of Professional Studies in Dairy Products Technology

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Campus Full time September 2017 USA San Luis Obispo

The Master of Professional Studies in Dairy Products Technology program trains students with scientific, engineering, food, and agricultural backgrounds for leadership and management roles in the dairy foods manufacturing industry. This innovative, one-year master's degree includes coursework in dairy chemistry, dairy microbiology, plant management, project management, leadership, sustainability, and other areas critical to effective dairy plant management. Through the use of experiential and project-based learning, students will develop the essential knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the international dairy foods industry. [+]

About the Program The Master of Professional Studies in Dairy Products Technology program trains students with scientific, engineering, food, and agricultural backgrounds for leadership and management roles in the dairy foods manufacturing industry. This innovative, one-year master's degree includes coursework in dairy chemistry, dairy microbiology, plant management, project management, leadership, sustainability, and other areas critical to effective dairy plant management. Through the use of experiential and project-based learning, students will develop the essential knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the international dairy foods industry. Program of Study Graduate students in the MPS in Dairy Products Technology program are required to complete a prescribed course of study designed to give them an understanding of dairy science and manufacturing, industry structure, unit operations, sanitation, quality control, and regulatory requirements. In addition, students will develop the leadership skills and experience needed to manage and guide teams in a dairy processing environment. Three quarters of on-campus course work are followed by a one-quarter internship related to dairy foods manufacturing. To graduate with the MPS in Dairy Products Technology, students must then pass a comprehensive examination. The Master of Professional Studies (MPS) in Dairy Products Technology program is designed to prepare students with analytical and critical thinking skills for careers in supervision or management at large-scale dairy processing operations. The MPS is not a research program. Many of our students have minimal exposure to dairy science but have exhibited an interest in dairy and have demonstrated management potential. The MPS is a one-year graduate... [-]

Master in Producing

American Film Institute
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Los Angeles

Developing in-depth knowledge of all aspects of creative and physical production, Producing Fellows graduate with an ability to think creatively and lead with confidence and authority. [+]

Top Master's Degrees in California in the USA. Developing in-depth knowledge of all aspects of creative and physical production, Producing Fellows graduate with an ability to think creatively and lead with confidence and authority. First year Fellows produce three narrative projects in collaboration with Fellows from other disciplines. They participate with their teams in both creative and production meetings, during which their individual projects are discussed and developed. Producing Fellows also attend weekly workshops and seminars where they learn about the producer's role and responsibilities in the filmmaking process. In the second year, producers team with Fellows in other disciplines to create a short narrative thesis production. Additionally, they are required to develop a feature film or television project as an integral component of their individual thesis portfolio. Producing Fellows also engage in a series of workshops and seminars on all aspects of creative entrepreneurial producing. First Year Curriculum PRN 510: Introduction to Cycle Production – Boot Camp PRN 511: Cycle Production I PRN 512: Cycle Production II & III PRN 521 & 522: Narrative Workshop and Analysis PRN 532: First Year Development Workshop (Second Term) (1 Credit Hour Total) PRO 511 & 512: Producing Workshop PRO 511.1: Producing Workshop (Development) PRO 521: The Art and Craft of Producing: Line Producing/Dramatic Analysis PRO 522: The Art and Craft of Producing: Part 1 – Creative Producing; Part 2 – Understanding Editing for Creative Producing CON 511 & 512: Master Seminars CON 521 & 522: American Approaches to Film PRO 531: Acting... [-]

Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology, Concentration in Expressive Arts Therapy

California Institute of Integral Studies
Campus Full time September 2017 USA San Francisco

At CIIS, expressive arts therapy refers to a therapeutic approach with individuals, couples, families, groups, and community-based programs that integrates a wide range of arts modalities in the service of human growth, development and healing. [+]

Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology, Concentration in Expressive Arts Therapy The Expressive Arts Therapy Program is still accepting applications for Fall, 2015! What is Expressive Arts Therapy? At CIIS, expressive arts therapy refers to a therapeutic approach with individuals, couples, families, groups, and community-based programs that integrates a wide range of arts modalities in the service of human growth, development and healing. It takes a multi-arts or multimodal approach, integrating painting, drawing, sculpture, dance/movement, music, drama, ritual, poetry, and prose within therapeutic encounters. Expressive arts therapists seek to build a compassionate, supportive, and culturally-sensitive relationship with clients. The expressive arts become the medium through which clients can explore and potentially transform emotional, social, spiritual, and relational issues; identify strengths; and experience new creative insights. Expressive arts therapy processes are used successfully in almost all psychotherapeutic contexts, ranging from work with people faced with chronic and persistent mental health challenges, to the facilitation of human growth and potential. Mission The EXA@CIIS program educates and trains the future leaders of the Expressive Arts therapy field. We use the power of the arts as tools for human development & healing, psycho-spiritual growth, social change, and empowered self-agency. This This is accomplished through an innovative Scholar-Artist-Practitioner model bridging gaps between academic knowledge, clinical practice and community engagement with the arts at the center. Our faculty considers each student to be a unique contributor to the learning community due to their diverse backgrounds, experience and interests. A Comprehensive Training in Counseling and Psychotherapy The... [-]

MA in Counseling Psychology

Pacifica Graduate Institute
Campus Full time October 2017 USA Carpinteria Santa Barbara + 1 more

Dedicated to offering students unique and evidenced-based comprehensive training in the art of marriage, family, and individual psychotherapy and professional clinical counseling with an appreciation for the systemic and immeasurable dimensions of the psyche. [+]

Top Master's Degrees in California in the USA. MA in Counseling Psychology Classes begin throughout September Dedicated to offering students unique and evidenced-based comprehensive training in the art of marriage, family, and individual psychotherapy and professional clinical counseling with an appreciation for the systemic and immeasurable dimensions of the psyche. Our Unique Counseling Psychology Program About Counseling Psychology For over three decades, Pacifica’s M.A. Program in Counseling Psychology has offered distinctive and comprehensive training and emphasis in the art, science, and practice of marriage and family therapy, professional clinical counseling, and depth psychology. As preparation for licensure in Marriage and Family Therapy and Professional Clinical Counseling, this rigorous academic program emphasizes both theoretical understanding and experiential training in clinical skills. Pacifica students have outstanding pass rates of the California LMFT exams. The California Board of Behavioral Sciences reports that 94% of the Pacifica graduates taking the MFT standard written exam from 1/1/2016-12/31/2016 passed the exam, which ranks higher than the state average of 75% for that time period. Students in the Counseling Psychology Program pursue two and a half years of coursework in Marriage and Family Therapy, Professional Clinical Counseling, Theory and Praxis, and Humanities and Depth Traditions. Research studies prepare students to explore and contribute to the continuing development of scholarship within the marriage and family therapy, professional clinical counseling, and depth psychological tradition. This underlying emphasis invites a curiosity about the psyche and encourages respect for the diversity of life and human experience. Supervised practicum provides students the... [-]

Master of Chinese Economic and Political Affairs (MCEPA)

UC San Diego School Of Global Policy & Strategy
Campus Full time September 2017 USA La Jolla

This professional degree allows students to combine UC San Diego’s rigorous professional training with a specialist’s interest in China. Students are trained to use cross-disciplinary tools to dig deeply into the economics and politics of China, as well as to consider its place in the Asia Pacific region and its relationship with the U.S. [+]

GPS is proud to offer a new, innovative, two-year, full-time degree: Master of Chinese Economic and Political Affairs. Beginning in fall 2017, students will work with UC San Diego’s world-class community of China scholars to investigate in depth the most important issues relating to contemporary China. This professional degree allows students to combine UC San Diego’s rigorous professional training with a specialist’s interest in China. Students are trained to use cross-disciplinary tools to dig deeply into the economics and politics of China, as well as to consider its place in the Asia Pacific region and its relationship with the U.S. The expertise of the degree’s core faculty covering economics, management, political science and policy analytics, is supplemented by other UC San Diego scholars who specialize in Chinese politics, society, history and language. The result is academic and professional training that prepares graduates for an array of academic, business, diplomatic and government positions. The cornerstone of the degree is the design and implementation of an interdisciplinary capstone project. This research project is closely guided by our preeminent faculty over the last six months of the degree program. The capstone fosters a mastery of research design and methods for the study of contemporary China and requires critical analysis of original and secondary Chinese sources. The ability to use original language source material is essential for serious professional analysis of China, thus students must possess language skills that are appropriate to the type of research they propose to conduct. ... [-]

Master of Music

University of Redlands
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Redlands

In the School of Music our goal is to educate the whole musician, not just to train a performer. [+]

Top Master's Degrees in California in the USA. In the School of Music our goal is to educate the whole musician, not just to train a performer. All great performances go far beyond technical mastery to include a sense of history, society, culture and art. Through a conservatory approach in a liberal arts setting, our students learn to perform, interpret and teach music in a rich learning environment that provides a broad education and intense training. Our studio teachers are among the finest musicians and teachers in Southern California. The classes are small and your teachers will know you as a person, not just as a name on a class roster. Music Admissions In the School of Music our goal is to educate the whole musician, not just to train a performer. All great performances go far beyond technical mastery to include a sense of history, society, culture and art. Through a conservatory approach in a liberal arts setting, our students learn to perform, interpret and teach music in a rich learning environment that provides a broad education and intense training. Our studio teachers are among the finest musicians and teachers in Southern California. The classes are small and your teachers will know you as a person, not just as a name on a class roster. Whether music is your major or you just have an interest in music, everyone is encouraged to participate in the diverse, musical environment found on campus. At Redlands you can perform in the Wind... [-]

Master of Professional Accountancy (MPAC)

University of California, Riverside
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Riverside

The Master of Professional Accountancy (MPAc) program at The A. Gary Anderson Graduate School of Management fills this growing demand for qualified certified public accountants (CPAs), especially with a California law effective for years after 2013 requiring 150 semester hours (or 225 quarter hours) of applicable college credit. [+]

Globalization, a revolution in technology, and increased regulation affecting internal accountants and external auditors have all contributed to demands for additional accountants with education beyond the baccalaureate degree. The Master of Professional Accountancy (MPAc) program at The A. Gary Anderson Graduate School of Management fills this growing demand for qualified certified public accountants (CPAs), especially with a California law effective for years after 2013 requiring 150 semester hours (or 225 quarter hours) of applicable college credit. Designed to be completed in nine months, the goal of the 48-unit MPAc program is to prepare students with the 20/20 vision needed to become the ideal accounting and auditing professionals in the year 2020 and beyond. Our students will benefit from a quality business education of a University of California caliber and learn from leading scholars and practitioners in the field. In addition, many influential business professionals at international accounting and auditing firms proudly call UCR their alma mater and actively recruit and support UCR students. Application Deadlines Fall 2017 Admission Priority round:December 15, 2016 Second round: January 31, 2017 Third round: March 1, 2017 Final Deadlines: International: May 1, 2017 Domestic: June 1, 2017 Admission Criteria The MPAc program is open to eligible students with an accounting background gained from undergraduate coursework, prior work experience, or a combination of both. We accept applicants with undergraduate degrees in business, accounting, economics and other related fields. We consider each applicant's professional, academic and life experiences in addition to character and personality. Admission to the... [-]

LLM in Taxation

University of San Diego School of Law
Campus Full time August 2017 USA San Diego

For almost 40 years, alumni of the University of San Diego School of Law’s LLM in  Taxation  program have gone on to practice successfully throughout California, the U.S. and the world. The LLM provides students with the theoretical and practical framework to become skilled leaders in the field of  tax  law.  [+]

Top Master's Degrees in California in the USA. LLM in Taxation PROGRAM DESCRIPTION For almost 40 years, alumni of the University of San Diego School of Law’s LLM in Taxation  program have gone on to practice successfully throughout California, the U.S. and the world. The LLM provides students with the theoretical and practical framework to become skilled leaders in the field of  tax law.  In order to apply to this Master of Laws program,  you  must have received your JD degree from a U.S. law school or  you  must have a law degree (such as a Bachelor of Laws) from an accredited institution in a country other than the United States.  The LLM in Taxation degree requires completion of 24 credits of coursework including five required courses: Corporate Tax (3 credits), Partnership Tax (3 credits), International Tax (3 credits), Taxation of Property Transactions (2 credits), and Tax Practice and Penalties (3 credits). Required courses can be waived by the director of the tax program upon good cause shown by any student. The remaining required credit hours can be selected from our broad selection of tax course offerings and (with permission of the director of the tax program) other related courses. APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS & DEADLINES To assist  you  in the application process, please review our  application checklist.  You  can also obtain further information, and access our online application from our  website.   The priority deadline to apply for entrance to the LLM programs for the Fall semester is  June 1.  The priority... [-]