Distance learning Master's Degree in Marketing

Top Distance learning Master's Degrees in Marketing 2017

Marketing

The benefits of a Masters extend beyond improving your earning potential. They can provide you with personal and professional skills to accelerate your development. They are also an opportunity to differentiate yourself from your peers, many of whom will have similar A-level and undergraduate qualifications.

Marketing programs may provide students with specific skills and knowledge associated with the identification of target audiences, the creation of pricing strategies, the development of services and products and the implementation of advertising methods to reach the appropriate consumers. 

While distance learning courses have due dates that must be met, there is a fabulous deal of compliance as to when you can carry out assignments when studying at a distance. With the online option, You could exit the discussion group as required to return to work and then join after work if needed. Distance learning courses can be taken in whatever place you have Internet access. You can even complete classes from the Internet lounge in any hotel around the world if you need a vacation.

Distance learning Master Program in Marketing

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Master in Political Marketing

Rome Business School
Campus or Online Part time March 2017 Italy Rome

LAST SCHOLARSHIPS AVAILABLE, APPLY NOW! The Master’s Degree in Political Marketing is aimed at providing the knowledge and abilities necessary to effectively and professionally manage the communication and marketing processes that support political campaigns and activities. [+]

LAST SCHOLARSHIPS AVAILABLE, APPLY NOW! Working in politics has never required as many professional competencies as in this historical period. Playing an active role in an electoral campaign on in the life of a party, but also writing about politics on a daily basis, are activities that, without specific training and without the mastery of the most up-to-date techniques, risk being unproductive.

The Master’s Degree in Political Marketing is aimed at providing the knowledge and abilities necessary to effectively and professionally manage the communication and marketing processes that support political campaigns and activities. Political-Electoral Marketing - Strategy - Market research for politics - Segmentation, targeting and positioning for politics - Political-Electoral marketing mix - Marketing 2.0 and 3.0 for politics Web and Social media for politics - Web and Social Media campaign planning, implementation and control for politics - Using Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Google+ for political communication - Political blogging - Emailing techniques Public speaking - Verbal and Non-verbal communication - Feedback effectiveness - Active listening - Steps for an effective public presentation Political Press Office - Political journalism - The Press Office - The planning of activities - Implementing actions and monitoring results. Organising events - Choice and ideation of the most suitable event in order to reach objectives - Project definition - Budget definition through the evaluation of economic aspects - Promotion: online through social media and offline through traditional media - Practical organization of the event. The electoral system and its specificity - Plurality systems - Majority systems - Proportional systems - Mixed systems Leadership for politics - Interpersonal influence - Leadership styles - The techniques Spin Doctoring - Role and activity evolution - Strategies and techniques - Excellency cases Fundraising for politics - Fundraising techniques and tactics - Fundraising patterns - The management of the relationship with donors - Budgeting and staffing models - Effective and ethical profiles - Phone banking, canvassing and special events Electoral campaign management - Traditional vs digital campaigns - Human resources management and organisation for an electoral campaign - The thematic campaign - Territorial campaign - Cases studies Innovative communication techniques for politics - Graphic, video and digital design - Modelling and 3D animation - Augmented reality - Mobile apps - Video mapping International excellency cases Edsegovi’s HOLOS model (Mexico) Learning Options This course may be attended in the following formulas: - on campus, at the Rome Business School Rome headquarters. - distance learning, through a cutting edge e-learning platform with live lectures and a great teacher-student interaction. Participation fees In order to ensure a top quality training course, attendance is limited to a maximum of 20 participants. Selection is based upon the evaluation of CVs and on the results of technical-motivational interviews. The participation fee for the Master’s Degree in Political Marketing is of € 3.500,00 (V.A.T. included). ... [-]

Master in Marketing and Communication

Rome Business School
Campus or Online Full time Part time March 2017 Italy Rome + 1 more

LAST SCHOLARSHIPS AVAILABLE, APPLY NOW! Training of excellence, paid internships, students from 140 countries, career service, international networking and many others benefits for your professional and personal development. Teaching formulas for every demand. [+]

LAST SCHOLARSHIPS AVAILABLE, APPLY NOW! The Master in Marketing and Communications at the Rome Business School is an ideal choice for the professional looking for a world-class degree programme in these subjects, to start or consolidate a successful career in an international environment. The quality of the teaching, paid international internships and the career and networking services on offer all contribute to making this programme the perfect fit for those who seek to excel in the job market and in global business.

Target recipients The Master’s Degree is designed for all those who are seeking their first exposure to the world of marketing and communications or, for all those who are already working in this environment, but are seeking to expand their knowledge of their own field, all within a structured environment. Students interested in taking part of this Master’s Degree are typically: graduates with or without previous experience in marketing and communication marketing professionals communication professionals professionals operating in environments other than marketing and communication who wish to acquire a deeper knowledge or start working in this field entrepreneurs who are seeking to build foundations in marketing communication knowledge. Structure (1 year) 6 months in Rome: Lectures + Additional Activities 6 months of project work Study tours in Europe An international paid internship: In a country of your choice   Contents Introduction to Marketing Company and Marketing Strategy Understanding the Marketplace and Consumers The Marketing Environment Marketing Information Systems and Research Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behaviour Business Markets and Business Buyer Behaviour Designing a Customer-Driven Marketing Mix Segmentation, Targeting, Differentiation and Positioning Product, Services, and Brands New-Product Development and Life-Cycle Strategies Pricing: Understanding and Capturing Customer Value Pricing Strategies Marketing Channels Retailing and Wholesaling Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy Communication and Promotion Advertising Public Relations Personal Selling Sales Promotion Direct Marketing Event Management Online Marketing Website Creation Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Web Analytics Search Engine Marketing (SEM) Social Media Marketing Email Marketing Online Advertising Competing on an international scale Creating a Competitive Advantage International Marketing and The Global Marketplace Marketing Ethics and Social Responsibility Special Contents The technical/professional teaching is enriched by: Company tours, to get to know managerial systems and players from the inside Artistic-cultural programmes, aimed at stimulating creativity, innovation capability and complex system understanding 2 months in New York: The Master course includes the opportunity to complete your studies in the heart of Wall Street (NYC) and of doing an internship there in more than 800 local companies. Training in interdisciplinary competencies, such as: PNL Self-marketing Interpersonal communication techniques Leadership Public speaking Cross-cultural Communication Presentation Skills Time Management Project Management Learning options and Tuition fees The Rome Business School offers numerous didactic formulas, to allow you to take advantage of the Master in Marketing and Communication in the most suitable way for your needs. Full Time Formula (on-campus or online): € 12.000 Executive Formula (on-campus or online): € 5.500 euro Professional Formula (on-campus or online): € 3.500 euro ... [-]

Master of Marketing (Online)


RMIT University: Online
Online Part time October 2017 Australia Melbourne

RMIT’s online Master of Marketing is designed for current and aspiring managers looking to increase their knowledge across an all-of-business approach to marketing. It’s also the perfect tool for entrepreneurs who need to be across every aspect of business marketing to start up a new venture. [+]

Best Distance learning Master Programs in Marketing. RMIT’s online Master of Marketing is designed for current and aspiring managers looking to increase their knowledge across an all-of-business approach to marketing. It’s also the perfect tool for entrepreneurs who need to be across every aspect of business marketing to start up a new venture. You will learn how to: perfect your expertise in planning, directing, implementing and monitoring develop core skills to deliver effective strategy improve your personal management skills better understand the relationship between marketing and other areas of management Engage with industry-renown experts who will help you see the role of marketing in new and unimagined ways. Our online course allows you to develop a breadth of knowledge, focusing on practical, real world tools and strategies which also apply to your personal career aspirations, so you can keep moving ahead. What you will study: Marketing Management Consumer Behaviour Marketing Research Marketing Communication Strategy Product Innovation Interactive Marketing Business and Network Marketing Services Marketing Social Marketing Brand Strategy Strategic Marketing Business Research Design 
 The benefits of studying online with RMIT Study while you work full-time RMIT’s accelerated online program prepares you for greater career success, while you continue to work full time. This flexible approach to postgraduate study offers more opportunity to carry on with life commitments while advancing your career. Finish sooner You can enrol into any of our six study periods throughout the year; each study period is seven weeks long. So whether you need to fit your study around work, family, or treks through the Himalayas, you can create a timetable that suits you. No on-campus exams or lectures
 While you will have online assessments, the Master of Marketing delivers a convenient online program without the requirement for on-campus attendance and traditional exams. All lecture material and content is delivered direct to you through an interactive online learning platform, wherever you are. Access to world-class academics Our online program is developed and led by renowned academics and industry leaders who possess the most up-to-date knowledge to equip you to tackle management challenges. We’ve simply optimised our on-campus content for the digital classroom to make studying more achievable for busy lifestyles. Work-connected learning
 The driving force behind our program is the industry connections you’ll make while studying. Learn from renowned academics and industry leaders, while guided by a notable advisory board of executives. This means that what you learn can be applied to your work immediately. Dedicated support and assistance Our study concierges are experts in student support and will be with you every step of the way, available to help you throughout your study journey. Students will receive one-on-one guidance, assistance and motivation as well as help you access any tools, resources or services you need, and help you achieve your study goals. Program intakes 6 intakes annually (October, January, March, May, July and September). Nested qualifications In addition, our Master of Marketing encompasses courses that make up our Graduate Certificate, so if you need to exit the program early, you can earn a postgraduate qualification by successfully completing specified courses. The Graduate Certificate is also a pathway to the masters for some students (see entry requirements). Entry requirements Australian Bachelor degree or equivalent, or higher level qualification, in business (or a related discipline); or RMIT Graduate Certificate in Marketing. Applicants with a degree in a non-business or related discipline need to apply for the Graduate Certificate in Marketing to complete the Masters degree in two years accelerated part-time mode. [-]

Master in Innovation and Tourism Marketing

UCAM Universidad Católica de Murcia
Campus or Online Full time November 2017 Spain Murcia

The Masters in Innovation and Tourism Marketing is intended for people that are passionate about the culture of innovation, technology, and marketing applied in tourism organizations. [+]

Student Profile The Masters in Innovation and Tourism Marketing is intended for people that are passionate about the culture of innovation, technology, and marketing applied in tourism organizations. Applicants wishing to enter this program must be a graduate of a tourism related study or have a degree in a different academic field. This program is appropriate for students who want to acquire or expand their knowledge with regards to the set-up and operations management aimed at innovation and marketing processes in the tourism sector. Therefore, prospective students should show a general interest in tourism as a whole as well as in the innovative aspects of marketing, creativity and design of tourism products, communication, distribution and new technologies applied in this sector. Key Facts Today’s society is evolving at a steady pace. Every day, different problems and challenges emerge, making the development of companies an uncertain path. In order to grow and contribute to the world’s progress, enterprises have to present new solutions to the market and to their business culture, never ignoring the real purpose of any society: to contribute to the common good. The objective of the Masters in Innovation and Tourism Marketing (ITM) is to empower each participant with strong leadership skills in an international and multicultural context in order to acquire knowledge and competences about innovation, technology and marketing, and the ability to apply them in real situations. Recognized academics and successful executives join in a strong faculty team, which presents students the broad perspective of a company in its different aspects, hereby assisting future leaders in their decision-making processes. Students’ individual evolution depends on their cooperative attitude and open- minded personality. As part of an international, multicultural group, classmates will have to team up with each other and work together to overcome different tasks and case studies based on real problems. Naturally, networks will grow in class and the bonds created can lead to projects beyond the master’s program. During the ITM, every participant will have the opportunity to feel the innovation world directly in an organization. With a minimum of 150 hours of practical work, the internship will contribute directly to the experience and professional profile of students. Moreover, UCAM’s career services will be available for the ITM students including the SOIL – “Orientation and Work Placement Service” of UCAM, “Portal de Empleo” – the university’s employment portal – and the “Network of Recruiting Erasmus”, a service that promotes international students’ employment in top companies throughout Spain. Career Opportunities The training given by the Master’s in Innovation and Tourism Marketing provides access to both the labor market’s private as well as public sector. There is a wide range of professional responsibilities and profiles that can be seized by graduates of this course. The skills obtained during this Master prepare students to occupy leading positions in companies and to draw up their own business plan as entrepreneurs. At the end of the program graduates are qualified to: Successfully develop their own business in the tourism sector Start / resume their career in the private sector holding positions of responsibility in departments of general management, innovation, human resources, marketing or communication Work as project or product managers, online managers in eCommerce, social media, revenue management etc. or as manager of innovation and tourism technology Develop their career in the public sector e.g. in the planning and management of smart destinations Advise public and private companies in the innovation, marketing and implementation of new technologies in the development of tourism projects Begin their professional career in the area of teaching and research Dra. Ginesa Martinez del Vas Director of the Master's in Innovation and Tourism Marketing Tourism accounts for one-third of total world trade. Moreover, tourism is the sector that creates the most jobs and has proven itself impervious to economic downturns. Therefore, prospective students should show a general interest in tourism as a whole as well as in the innovative aspects of marketing, creativity and design of tourism products, communication, distribution and new technologies applied in this sector. Spain is a world power in the tourism industry with extensive experience in research and development, that has allowed us to build up a wealth of knowledge, which we feel urged to share and educate on. In the last ten years, the introduction of new management systems and products has revolutionized the tourism branch. Today’s technological environment represents a challenge to the individual operator to compete on equal terms with all the different types of organizations in the sector. This new way of doing business has revolutionized the tourism sector, converting it at the same time both to the second largest percentage of internet searches and No. 1 in terms of internet monetary transactions. Quality, the ability to adapt quickly to change, personalized marketing, innovative products and the creation of new tourism experiences - these are the foundations on which the future of tourism rests. The constant emergence of new competitors and new technologies, along with the specialization and professionalization of the sector means that companies and employees in the industry have to keep up with the speed of these changes. This ambition requires a deep understanding of individual markets and customers, calls on its stakeholders to be creative, to keep abreast of changes in popular culture, to grasp the latest technological developments and to be able to put them to profitable use. These are the skills and knowledge this Master will help students acquire. The Masters in Innovation and Tourism Marketing offered by UCAM, an Affiliated Member of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), is an essential step in the honing of professional skills and a giant leap in the modernization of tourism management, thereby improving the competitiveness of tourism companies and popular tourist destinations. [-]

Master of Marketing

The University of Newcastle, GradSchool (Online)
Campus or Online Full time Part time May 2017 Australia Newcastle Sydney + 1 more

A Master of Marketing through the University of Newcastle offers a strategically developed program that will challenge your approach to marketing, enhance your ability to think and act analytically as well as master your strategic capabilities. [+]

Marketing is a dynamic, challenging and fast paced business function focused on the customer. Marketing professionals must be prepared to apply analytical and problem solving skills to make informed marketing decisions in order to address complex business situations. A Master of Marketing from the University of Newcastle equips graduates with marketing knowledge and skills to plan and execute marketing strategies and tactics for organisations in the not-for-profit, government and private sectors. A Master of Marketing through the University of Newcastle is for professionals aiming to further expand their knowledge in marketing or for people looking to change career into the marketing profession. Marketing is a dynamic field with organisations of all types becoming increasingly market-oriented requiring marketing-qualified professionals , the University of Newcastle’s Master of Marketing program will keep you at the cutting edge of the industry. The Master of Marketing is one of the few programs that recognises relevant professional experience and may result in credit being granted for up to four courses. This means you could reduce your study by up to a third! To learn more about what your professional experience can provide you with, please visit the Professional Development tab. The Master of Marketing can be studied face-to-face at the Newcastle City Precinct, online or a combination of the two. This allows you to achieve a post grad qualification whilst balancing your professional and personal commitments, through study designed for life. Explore this page and find out if the Master of Marketing is for you, what you will study and the career opportunities it can provide you. Is it for you? Are you searching for a qualification that will enhance your knowledge and capability as a marketer? Due to the dynamic and competitive nature of today’s industry, it is important to be highly skilled in order to be an effective marketer but also for constant professional growth and to improve career opportunities and promotions prospects. The Master of Marketing focuses on developing greater understanding of marketing principles, consumer decision making and strategic marketing decision making. Specialisation in particular aspects of marketing is also offered which draw upon the research strengths of the faculty, with focus placed on marketing communications, brand management, services and relationship marketing, global marketing, digital marketing and marketing research. This postgraduate qualification can be the key to your future career success and can provide you with the know how to efficiently and effectively capture, communicate and deliver value to your target consumers. The program offers students the opportunity to learn from a blend of cutting-edge academic research with the latest insights from industry. With learning delivered via face to face or an integrated online learning platform to suit busy work schedules and/or personal commitments, the University of Newcastle’s Master of Marketing will enhance your knowledge of marketing, at a time and place that suits the demands of your life. Upon graduation you will have a comprehensive understanding of a number of aspects of marketing and the ability to plan and implement successful marketing campaigns. Career Pathways The Master of Marketing program is comprehensive, contemporary and practical. It will develop your professional expertise in the processes and application of modern marketing. The program will provide you with depth of knowledge of contemporary marketing issues and simultaneously build your skills in analysing situations, marketing opportunities and developing and managing marketing strategy. These outcomes will facilitate you in meeting employment challenges with confidence and conviction. If you are looking to enter a marketing management role, the Master of Marketing program will give you the edge you need. Marketing career opportunities exist across all industries which span exciting and challenging areas such as marketing strategy and planning, brand management, marketing communications, marketing research, social marketing, digital marketing and sustainability. By completing the Master of Marketing, you will differentiate yourself from other marketers in that you will possess a broad range of marketing knowledge and skills, and you will understand how these skills inter-relate with other organisational functions, in both local and global contexts. The relevant knowledge and skills underlie many senior roles including: Marketing manager Brand manager Marketing communications specialist Market research analyst Media analyst Marketing operations specialist Admission Requirements There are two pathways into the Master of Marketing. Direct entry into the Masters Program (120 units) will be available for applicants who have: 3 year Bachelors Degree in the discipline; or 3 year Bachelors Degree not in the discipline + 1 year relevant business experience; or At least 7 years business experience, including 2 years in a management position. Students entering via this pathway are able to complete 4 courses per trimester, and are able to complete courses in any sequence they wish, that is consistent with course prerequisites. Applicants with an Honours degree in the cognate area or equivalent relevant qualifications at level 8 or above will be given appropriate recognition of prior learning. The alternate pathway is through the Graduate Certificate (40 units) which will be available for applicants who have: 3 year Bachelors Degree not in the discipline; or 3 year Diploma in the discipline; or 3 year Diploma not in the discipline + 1 year relevant business experience; or 2 year Diploma in the discipline + 2 years relevant business experience; or 2 year Diploma not in the discipline + 3 years relevant business experience; or At least 5 years business experience. Students entering via this pathway will be required to: Complete the Graduate Certificate over a minimum of two trimesters (typically 20 units per trimester); and Successfully complete a Business Academic Skills Program (BASP) which will be of 6 weeks duration. The BASP will be non-fee based and can be completed concurrently with courses in the Graduate Certificate. Only after the successful completion of the Graduate Certificate and the academic skills program will students be eligible to formally enrol in the Masters Program. Minimum English Language Proficiency Requirements Applicants who do not speak English as a first language must demonstrate that they meet the University's English proficiency requirement. Further information regarding English language proficiency requirements can be found at the English Language Proficiency for Admission Policy at http://www.newcastle.edu.au/about-uon/governance-and-leadership/policy-library/document?RecordNumber=D15/15438 [-]

Master of Marketing

University of Newcastle
Campus or Online Full time January 2017 Australia Newcastle

The Master of Marketing program is comprehensive, contemporary and practical. It will develop your professional expertise in the processes and application of modern marketing. [+]

The Master of Marketing program is comprehensive, contemporary and practical. It will develop your professional expertise in the processes and application of modern marketing. The program will provide you with depth of knowledge in the field and simultaneously build your skills in analysing situations, and developing and managing marketing strategy. These outcomes will facilitate you in meeting employment challenges with confidence and conviction.

 

By completing the Master of Marketing program, you will differentiate yourself from other marketers in that you will possess a broad range of marketing skills and you will understand how these skills inter-relate with other organisational functions. These insights will enable you to contribute widely to the management of organisational offerings, customer-perceived value, strategic positioning and competitive advantage, in both local and global contexts. The relevant knowledge and skills underlie many senior roles including marketing managers and executives, marketing research analysts, and product and brand managers.... [-]


Master's Degree In Business Management And Marketing

IEDE Business School Chile
Campus or Online Full time 18  February 2017 Chile Providencia

Today, more than ever, businesses compete using the ability and talent of the people working in them. In addition, there has been the need for lifelong learning, which finds its origin in frequency, depth and complexity of the changes that affect organizations and the environment in which they operate. [+]

Best Distance learning Master Programs in Marketing. OVERVIEW Today, more than ever, businesses compete using the ability and talent of the people working in them. In addition, there has been the need for lifelong learning, which finds its origin in frequency, depth and complexity of the changes that affect organizations and the environment in which they operate. OBJECTIVES The role of director of commercial and marketing has taken a leading role in modern business. Because markets are increasingly competitive, complex and changing, this professional requires preparation and continuous improvements in areas such as strategic planning, strategic marketing, consumer behavior, and strategic sales management, among others. The Master in Business Management and Marketing, e-learning, IEDE Business School program aims that students acquire, strengthen and develop skills and management skills for sound decision-making in the field of business and marketing strategies, for solid skills to function successfully in this area. PROFILE TITULADO The Graduate Professional Master in Business Management and Marketing achieved a level of knowledge, skills and competences in the area, which allow you to: Identify consumer segments and identify new business opportunities. Mastering the commercial and marketing strategies in the company, with a solid knowledge of quantitative and qualitative tools. Design and implement a strategic planning of the marketing and communications to compete successfully in domestic and international markets. Define the strategic and tactical criteria that should characterize the sales team in order to strengthen their motivation and commitment to meeting business objectives in the context of business reality. Hold positions in general management or executive management in the area of ​​marketing, companies or organizations of public and / or private. KEY FEATURES Spanish title by UEM Includes exclusive access to James McGuire Global Business Plan Competition Access to virtual library. Exclusive access to EBSCO data base where you will find papers and scientific articles related to the program. It has 3 degree options: End master project Professional advice for entrepreneurs with social risk in conjunction with ROOF International business travelers METHODOLOGY The Master in Business Management and Marketing e-learning, IEDE Business School is structured in 18 months, during which the student must perform the End Master Project, which will defend once passed all the subjects contained in the Curriculum. Profile recommended: Qualified professionals, who work in the commercial and marketing, which have a minimum of 2 years experience [-]

Marketing Of Industrial Enterprises

The Belarusian Trade and Economics University of Consumer Cooperatives
Campus or Online Full time Part time 12 - 18  Open Enrolment Belarus Belcoopsoyuz + 1 more

The development of industry and innovation organizations, qualitative change in household demand for goods, increased competition, the formation of a fundamentally new system of governance, in the center of which is based on the strategic management of marketing, required training marketers in the industry. [+]

The development of industry and innovation organizations, qualitative change in household demand for goods, increased competition, the formation of a fundamentally new system of governance, in the center of which is based on the strategic management of marketing, required training marketers in the industry. Marketers are in the "advanced", led us directly help management manage, occupy the leading place of control. The main purpose of their activities - increase profits of their organization and the needs of people. No marketer today, does not do any modern enterprise. This is one of the highest paid professions in the world, the occupation for creative, talented people. The University trains specialists such specialization "Marketing of industrial enterprises", which makes the future of organizations and enterprises of the most popular in the labor market. Profiling department on this specialization is marketing department. Specialization "Marketing of industrial enterprises" in-depth study suggests not only disciplines that form the knowledge and skills in the field of economics, business, management, law, logistics, but also a variety of disciplines, defining the profile specialist. These disciplines, primarily include: "Marketing in the industry", "Benchmarketing", "Marketing Innovation", "Marketing Management", "Consumer Behavior", "Market research", "Marketing Communications", "Strategic Marketing" and others . Marketing specialists in the industry in addition to good theoretical knowledge must also possess practical, namely: - Develop a marketing program for the development of production of goods and services; - To develop measures to encourage the marketing of products of industrial enterprises and organizations; - To carry out business planning innovative projects of industrial enterprises and organizations; - Develop and implement advertising campaigns, taking into account the specifics of manufactured products; - To carry out an effective marketing strategy, taking into account industry-specific enterprise. It offers a whole range of modern advances in technology marketing training, top-notch professionals. In the process of learning is widely practiced master classes, trainings, business games and computer business simulations, case-method, where students are immersed in the atmosphere, making it possible to understand marketing techniques and tools, to meet with specialists of marketing services of leading industrial enterprises, to listen to different points of view and make your own opinion about everything going on. Graduates can work in marketing, economists on logistics, economists sales, sales agents in the respective structural units of industrial enterprises and organizations of the Republic of Belarus of various forms of ownership. Alumni of the University issued a state diploma. [-]