Masters Program in Chemical Engineering

Top 53 Masters Degrees in Chemical Engineering 2017

Chemical Engineering

A masters is the first level of graduate coursework and can be obtained after you receive a bachelor’s degree. Earning a masters usually requires two years of full-time study, which amounts to 36 to 54 semester credits.

 

Get a Masters degree in Chemical Engineering encompassing the field of chemistry, process engineering and materials sciences. Conduct researches and put your practical knowledge to use in your career on attaining this degree.

Master's Program in Chemical Engineering

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MRes Advanced Chemical Sciences

Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
Campus Full time 18  September 2017 China Suzhou

The MRes Advanced Chemical Sciences programme provides thorough education and training to understand different aspects of the current material chemistry. The programme aligns with similar MSc programmes at the University of Liverpool and is delivered entirely in English. [+]

Masters in Chemical Engineering. Overview The MRes Advanced Chemical Sciences programme provides students with the education and training needed to understand different aspects of the field of material sciences. It aligns with similar MSc programmes at the University of Liverpool. The programme contains taught modules covering areas from synthetic chemistry to nanotechnology to analytical methods and instrumentation. It places strong emphasis on the development of project management and professional skills. After completing the taught modules, you will engage in a 12-month extensive research project of your choice that leads to submission of a dissertation. A customised learning plan is designed for you, taking into account your background and career aspirations. Successful completion of the programme leads to the award of an MRes degree from the University of Liverpool. Unique selling points • Taught by international staff who are experts in various fields of chemistry • Excellent preparation for the study of PhD programmes both at universities abroad or in China • Offers strong links to local and international industries • XJTLU is located close to the many biotechnology companies in nearby BioBay, a national biotechnology hub with over 400 companies, ideal for internships • Nearby Cold Spring Harbor Asia hosts prestigious scientific symposia, conferences and summer schools providing our students with the opportunity to interact with world-famous researchers • Earn a University of Liverpool degree that is recognised by the Chinese Ministry of Education. Knowledge and skills By the time you graduate, you will: • Develop key, career-enhancing personal and... [-]

Master's Programme in Toxicology

Karolinska Institutet
Campus Full time August 2017 Sweden Stockholm

The Master's Programme in Toxicology gives students an in-depth knowledge of the broad and interdisciplinary toxicological field. [+]

The Master's Programme in Toxicology gives students an in-depth knowledge of the broad and interdisciplinary toxicological field. The programme prepares students for either a research or professional career and provides a solid platform for doctoral studies in toxicology or work in risk/safety assessment-related areas in the public sector or industry. Programme presentation The Master's Programme in Toxicology was one of the first toxicology programmes in the world. The programme is unique in its two-year cohesive focus on toxicology and human health. The programme utilises its close connection to high-quality research and risk assessment work at the Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM) - the main centre for education and training in toxicology and health risk assessment in Sweden, and collaborates with pharmaceutical and chemical industries, national authorities (for example the Swedish Chemicals Agency and the Swedish National Food Administration), Swetox and the Swedish Poison Information Centre, as well as with scientists at other departments both within and outside KI. The programme includes principles in toxicology, toxicokinetics, target organ toxicity, biochemical and molecular toxicological methods, mechanisms of toxicity and mode of action, toxicity testing, laboratory animal science, alternative methods to animal testing, histopathology, statistics, epidemiology, and health risk assessment. This first part of the programme provides students with a general, advanced toxicological grounding, upon which they then base a personal line of inquiry to probe more deeply into experimental research or risk/safety assessment by taking elective and/or project courses. Programme outline *might be subject to changes Semester 1 Principles of toxicology Toxicokinetics... [-]

Masters in Plastic Materials Engineering - IN FRENCH

ITECH Lyon
Campus Full time September 2017 France Lyon

ITECH engineers distinguish themselves from those of other chemistry schools through advances in the manufacturing of plastic materials, on top of fundamental knowledge. [+]

Masters in Chemical Engineering. ITECH engineers distinguish themselves from those of other chemistry schools through advances in the manufacturing of plastic materials, on top of fundamental knowledge. ITECH plastic manufacturing engineers complement their speciality with aspects of the other majors: coating different plastic materials (Formulation Chemistry); composite materials used in transport, sports and leisure, and geo-textiles (Textile Materials). From hygiene to aeronautics, automotive to sports, many sectors make use of plastic manufacturing engineers who can work as much with raw material suppliers, as with “formulators”. Admission for Students outside France 1st year admission: Graduate studies in chemistry (Bachelor’s degree or equivalent , 180 ECTS) A satisfying level in French: B2 CERF + interview with ITECH 2nd year admission: 1 year of postgraduate studies completed (M1 or equivalent, 240 ECTS) How to apply? Visit and register at inscription.itech.fr (for EU students) Or Apply through Campus France site (CEF procedures). For countries which do not have CEF procedures with France, you must do an Application for Preliminary Admission (DAP) to the cultural service of the French embassy in your country of residence. Tuition fees Tuition fees for the English Section are 6 500€/year. Hands on training ITECH is adamant in supplying students with a strong professional experience. On top of a multidisciplinary teaching, the institute adds a 10 month minimum of mandatory internships in companies for the regular status students. End of 1st year: International experience - minimum 6 weeks This international experience is prepared in advance in terms of an intercultural... [-]

Master’s programme in Textile Engineering

University of Borås
Campus Full time 2 - 2  August 2017 Sweden Borås

Get the skills in and become prepared for employment within management or qualified research functions in textile-related engineering, for example material and product design and development, manufacturing, functional and interactive textile structures. [+]

Master’s programme in Textile Engineering   The Master’s programme in Textile Engineering focuses on advanced technological textiles, where the design process has a crucial role, but where also materials engineering, nano-technology and crossdisciplinary insight into the textile value chain are extremely important for the outcome. It is intended to qualify you for employment in managerial and developmental roles within the textile industry and related activities. There is a vivid exchange with current research in the field, strong professional links and the capacity to stimulate students to develop their skills for qualified employment within the textile sector, which may include a scientific career or developing their own business. Your capacity for innovation will be encouraged and together with deep subject knowledge you become well placed to create and support new businesses in the industry. The programme will provide environmental, ecological, ethical and globalization-related awareness. Building a personal network is important and is supported in the School of Textiles environment through interaction with a range of people in design, technology and management professions. Upon graduation, you will have skills in and be prepared for employment within management or qualified research functions in textile-related engineering, for example material and product design and development, manufacturing, functional and interactive textile structures. You will be prepared for qualified tasks at the advanced level within the textile technology field and will have attained a comprehensive understanding of the textile value chain with specialisation in development, innovation and leadership. Upon graduation, you will have the ability to: demonstrate and... [-]

MPhil in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (Nanotechnology Concentration)

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Campus Full time Part time September 2017 Hong Kong

A joint postgraduate program in Nanoscience and Technology, initiated by the Schools of Science and Engineering, can offer long-term support to our ongoing research and training as well as to the development of technology and to commercialization efforts. The MPhil program aims to strengthen students’ fundamental knowledge of Chemical Engineering, with specialization in the areas of chemical processing, materials, environment, energy and bioengineering. [+]

Masters in Chemical Engineering. Working at the cutting edge of the field with top international scientists, our postgraduate programs seek to ensure that each student: attains an in-depth understanding of fundamental yet advanced chemical engineering topics; exercises intellectual curiosity in probing chemical engineering subjects at the frontiers of chemical engineering; develops skills to pursue new knowledge, both basic and applied, independently; and engages in pioneering research in this and related disciplines. The Department emphasizes both academic excellence and industrial relevance and, wherever possible, programs are set in the context of local industrial needs and explore the potential of creating demand for new technologies. The MPhil program aims to strengthen students’ fundamental knowledge of Chemical Engineering, with specialization in the areas of chemical processing, materials, environment, energy and bioengineering. Students will be exposed to relevant issues involved in the scientific research, technology development and commercial applications in the field. Those on the program are required to undertake coursework and successfully complete a thesis to demonstrate competence in research. Research Foci Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering is a highly diversified engineering and science discipline. The Department’s research can be classified into four major areas: Advanced Materials Nanomaterials, zoelites, novel polymers, polymer composites, polymer interfaces and surfaces as well as polymer/ceremic membranes. In-depth studies are being carried out in: rheology, non-Newtonian flow, heat and mass transport, and process control associated with the injection-molding process. Bioprocess Engineering Environmental biotechnology, Chinese traditional medicine (novel extraction, drying, packaging), biosensors (applications to wastewater treatment, genechips), food industries (batch... [-]

Master in Chemical Engineering

Polytechnic Institute Of Bragança
Campus Full time September 2017 Portugal Bragança

This master programme is fully lectured in English and seeks to provide technological training for professional purposes in the several fields covered by Chemical Engineering, including chemical process engineering, control and process optimization, besides the specialization in polymers, environmental technology and biotechnology. [+]

Program Description This master programme is fully lectured in English and seeks to provide technological training for professional purposes in the several fields covered by  Chemical Engineering, including chemical process engineering, control and process optimization, besides the specialization in polymers, environmental technology and biotechnology. This study cycle is lectured in cooperation with LSRE-IPB (Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Processes), an IPB pole of the Associated Laboratory LSRE/LCM belonging to the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. Profile of the programme The profile of the programme comprises the development of the technical-scientific knowledge and professional specialized skills in the study areas of  Chemical Engineering: Chemical Process Engineering; Chemical Process Simulation, Control and Optimization; Polymers; Environmental Technology; Biotechnology. Key learning outcomes The degree of "mestre" (master) in Chemical Engineering is awarded to those students that demonstrate, in this field, the ability to: 

 develop and enhance the knowledge obtained in the first cycle, in order to develop and apply that knowledge to original situations often in the context of research; 
 apply their knowledge and understanding and problem solving capacities to new and unfamiliar situations in wide multidisciplinary situations, although related to their area of studies; integrate knowledge, deal with complex matters, develop solutions or put forward opinions on situations of limited or incomplete information, including reflecting upon the implications and ethical and social responsibilities that result from both those solutions and opinions or indeed that condition them; 
 communicate their conclusions and the knowledge and reasoning that underly them, both to experts and non-experts, clearly... [-]

Master in Chemical Engineering for Energy and the Environment

KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Campus Full time September 2017 Sweden Stockholm

The Master’s programme in Chemical Engineering for Energy and the Environment will offer students a comprehensive education and the engineering tools necessary to solve the future challenges of how to best use our energy and finite natural resources. [+]

Master in Chemical Engineering for Energy and the EnvironmentThe Master’s programme in Chemical Engineering for Energy and the Environment will offer students a comprehensive education and the engineering tools necessary to solve the future challenges of how to best use our energy and finite natural resources. Programme outlineStudents gain advanced competence in chemical engineering and obtain modern tools to analyse various processes, such as the production of biofuels, energy storage or the purification of drinking water – through the whole chain, from raw materials to product. The analyses often include aspects on chemicals, heat, electricity and environment.A large number of elective courses allows students to tailor their education to meet personal and professional goals, and complementary skills like problem-solving and team work are emphasised in many of the courses, as is written and oral communication. The courses are therefore, to a large degree, based on seminars and project assignments as a complement to traditional lectures. The education is closely linked to the research conducted at the School of Chemical Science and Engineering at KTH, the Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology in particular, and to Swedish industry. The programme also provides an excellent basis for activities in countries outside of Sweden, as most of the teachers have close contacts with foreign universities and companies and there are strong opportunities to study parts of the programme abroad.Degree projectThe thesis topic of the degree project may be chosen from a list of available projects at the School of Chemical Science and Engineering,... [-]


Master of Chemical Sciences

La Trobe University
Campus Full time March 2018 Australia Melbourne

If you're a chemistry graduate, this course will provide you with additional or advanced training in specialised areas of chemical science, such as analytical chemistry, computational chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry and instrumental methods. [+]

If you're a chemistry graduate, this course will provide you with additional or advanced training in specialised areas of chemical science, such as analytical chemistry, computational chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry and instrumental methods. English Language Requirements IELTS (Academic): minimum score of 6.5 with no individual band score less than 6.0. TOEFL Paper-based Test: minimum score of 575 (minimum score of 5 in the Test of Written English). TOEFL Internet-based Test: minimum score of 80 with minimum overall for SLR 18; W 22. La Trobe Melbourne (ELICOS): Completion of the English for Further Studies Advanced Stage 6B at La Trobe Melbourne with minimum 60 per cent overall and 60 per cent in final exam. For more information please visit the La Trobe Melbourne website. English as the language of instruction in tertiary studies may be accepted. Please note: English as the language of instruction in previous study will not be accepted as a basis of admission (English) for courses where the approved test score requirement is above an IELTS 6.5 with no band score lower than 6.0. Pearson Test of English (Academic) (PTE): minimum score of 64 with no communicative skill score less than 59. Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English (CAE): a grade of B or higher. Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE): a grade of C or higher. Or approved international equivalent. Academic entry requirements An Australian Bachelor's degree in chemistry, or a degree with a substantial chemistry content equivalent to second or third-year chemistry, or... [-]

Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences

Enugu State University of Science and Technology - ESUT
Campus Full time March 2018 Nigeria Enugu

The Department of Applied Biology offers postgraduate programmes leading to PGD, M.Sc. and PhD degrees in biological science disciplines. At the moment six areas, namely Pest Management (Entomology) and Plant Physiology, Hydrobiology and Fisheries, Ecology and Environmental Biology, Genetics and Plant Pathology. are covered. [+]

Masters in Chemical Engineering. Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences Applied Biology and Biotechnology Introduction The Department of Applied Biology offers postgraduate programmes leading to PGD, M.Sc. and PhD degrees in biological science disciplines. At the moment six areas, namely Pest Management (Entomology) and Plant Physiology, Hydrobiology and Fisheries, Ecology and Environmental Biology, Genetics and Plant Pathology. are covered. Courses in other disciplines will be mounted as manpower becomes available in the specialist areas. Philosophy Science is generally accepted to be the bedrock of technological development which is the main index of national growth and maturity. Thus scientific orientation and knowledge lead to faster development of human resources and improvement of human welfare. Based on these considerations, an important and urgent national need arises to impart a broad knowledge in basic sciences to those with the right aptitude. Only a sound science base can nurture technology for service to society. The social relevance and acceptability of the scientifically trained are self-evident from this standpoint, the promise of self-realization and actualization can serve as incentive for the pursuit of scientific knowledge. All the postgraduate programmes in the Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences in this university are based on the above philosophy. However, the detailed objectives vary according to the individual disciplines. Objectives In applied Biology, the broad objectives are: To provide well-trained biologists in specialist fields to man relevant positions in Research Institutes, Universities and other institutions of higher learning in the country; To development expertise and facilities so as to permit... [-]

Màster Universitario En Química Teòrica Y Modelitzación Computacional

Jaume I University (Universitat Jaume I)
Campus Full time October 2017 Spain Castellón

El Máster Interuniversitario en Química Teórica y Modelización Computacional pretende otorgar al estudiante una formación avanzada, de carácter especializado [+]

Objetivos El Máster Interuniversitario en Química Teórica y Modelización Computacional pretende otorgar al estudiante una formación avanzada, de carácter especializado y multidisciplinar orientada a promover la iniciación en tareas investigadoras que supla la demanda creciente de personal experto no solo del mundo de la academia, sino también de la industria. Exactamente, viene dado por la necesidad de formar personal investigador capaz de abordar tareas de I+D+i tales como: generación de nuevos fármacos, síntesis de nuevos materiales o conocimiento de actividad enzimática. Por tanto, el máster ofrece la posibilidad de integrarse en diversas y atrayentes áreas de actividad social e industrial. Tipo de enseñanza Presencial: enero 2015 (intensivo) - febrero 2015 (intensivo) - septiembre 2016 (intensivo) Duración y calendario Duración: dos cursos académicos (octubre 2014 / septiembre 2016) Presencial: enero 2015 (intensivo) - febrero 2015 (intensivo) - septiembre 2016 (intensivo) Créditos e importe 120 créditos ECTS (European Credit Transfer System). Pendiente de publicar (2013: 46,20 €/crédito). [-]

Master in Chemical Innovation and Regulation

University of Bologna School of Sciences
Campus Full time September 2017 Italy Bologna

The Erasmus Mundus Master Course in Chemical Innovation and Regulation (EMMC ChIR) is a Joint Master course developed by the Consortium of Universities. These are the University of Algarve, the University of Barcelona, the University of Bologna and Heriot Watt University. [+]

Masters in Chemical Engineering. The Erasmus Mundus Master Course in Chemical Innovation and Regulation (EMMC ChIR) is a Joint Master course developed by the Consortium of Universities. These are the University of Algarve, the University of Barcelona, the University of Bologna and Heriot Watt University. The Universities in the Consortium have agreed on the following Quality Policy regarding the EMMC ChIR: The mission of the EMMC ChIR is to provide its students with the all tools and knowledge from the scientific, the regulatory and the economic point of view necessary to manage the risks of chemicals responsibly and to meet responsibilities over chemical legislation worldwide. ChIR stakeholders are any institution or individual concerned with the risks of chemical substances over humans and the environment, namely the European Chemicals Agency, the national chemicals regulation bodies, chemical industry companies, and the public in general. ChIR will continuously update its curriculum and structure looking towards the fulfillment of its stakeholders’ expectations by preparing professionals highly competent to deal with the challenges of chemical innovation and safe regulation of chemical substances. The vision of the EMMC ChIR is to become the reference in Higher Education for the regulation of chemical substances. The EMMC ChIR aspires to be a model of successful European cooperation, promoting scientific research to support regulations on new chemical substances. The EMMC ChIR will contribute to the competitiveness of European and non-European companies by compliance with international regulations on the use of chemical substances and through the development of new safer... [-]

Master In Chemical Sciences

University of Cagliari
Campus Full time October 2017 Italy Cagliari

The course of Science in Chemical Sciences is established at the Department of Chemical Sciences and Geological and belongs to the class for the second level degrees in 'Chemistry' (LM-54). The teaching order of the degree course, on the basis of the DM 270 reorganization decrees for the training offer optimization, has been established taking into account the number of students ... [+]

The course of Science in Chemical Sciences is established at the Department of Chemical Sciences and Geological and belongs to the class for the second level degrees in 'Chemistry' (LM-54). The teaching order of the degree course, on the basis of the DM 270 reorganization decrees for the training offer optimization, has been established taking into account the number of students (between 16 and 28 registered annually), the availability of teaching that conducts research, career opportunities and the possibility of access to programs of PhD courses in Chemistry and services available and necessary facilities for the smooth running of activities. For access to the Master of Science in Chemistry, you must have a Bachelor degree or a title obtained abroad and recognized as valid, as well as the curricular requirements and adequate personal preparation in accordance with the provisions of law and in the Academic Regulations for the course. Are curricular requirements for the registration ownership of at least 80 credits distributed among the scientific areas of Mathematics and Physics (20 credits) and Chemistry (60 credits) to be acquired by the student prior to registration. The assessment of personal preparation is performed by means of an entrance test. The Master of Science in Chemistry aims to train professionals with a chemical knowledge level that would provide: the right of access to the programs of the doctoral programs in chemistry; the ability to operate in laboratories, public and private bodies, and also to its management industries; the recognition of the achievement... [-]

Master's Degree In Advanced Biotechnology

Universidade da Coruña
Campus Full time September 2017 Spain A Coruña

Current biotechnology includes a set of very sophisticated techniques and technologies, which are replacing the classical methodologies, favoring more immediate results and allowing to tackle new challenges unthinkable until a few decades ago. Today, highly qualified professionals are required to face the new challenges facing this biotechnology sector, both in business and research. [+]

Masters in Chemical Engineering. Introduction Current biotechnology includes a set of very sophisticated techniques and technologies, which are replacing the classical methodologies, favoring more immediate results and allowing to tackle new challenges unthinkable until a few decades ago. Today, highly qualified professionals are required to face the new challenges facing this biotechnology sector, both in business and research. That is why the objective of this Master is twofold: Professionalizing : To train students who intend to dedicate themselves professionally in the biotechnological industry and / or update the knowledge and improve the training of professionals already dedicated to this activity. Academic-Researcher : To train students who wish to join scientific research centers in biotechnology of research teams of public and private organizations and companies. Why study the degree In Spain, there has been a great increase in the effort devoted to biotechnology research in recent years, which has allowed the generation of knowledge and the acquisition of experience, to the point of having favored the breeding ground capable of sustaining the creation Of companies of biotechnological base in the sector of the feeding, environment as in the one of the health. Biotechnology in Spain is not a potential but a reality that increasingly affects multiple aspects of our life and our economy. The future development of biotechnology as a scientific, technological and industrial activity requires the incorporation of professionals with a solid scientific background and knowledge of the business world and its socio-economic environment. The present proposal of masters in... [-]

University/Inter-university Master’s Degree in Nanoscience, Materials and Processes: Chemical Technology at the Frontier Master Programme

Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Campus Full time October 2017 Spain Tarragona Portugal Tomar France Bordeaux Barcelona + 5 more

The aim of this programme is to train new professionals specialised in the field of Nanotechnology, Materials and Chemical Engineering (coming from undergraduate degrees in any of the branches of experimental sciences and technologies: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Physics, Quantum Chemistry, Biological Chemistry, Microbiology,...) with a clear orientation towards research... [+]

Nanoscience, Materials and Processes: Chemical Technology at the Frontier Master Programme The aim of this programme is to train new professionals in the field of nanotechnology, materials and chemical engineering. It is of particular interest for graduates in any of the branches of the experimental sciences and technologies (chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, quantum chemistry, biological chemistry, microbiology, etc.) and it clearly prepares them for future research. The students will acquire the skills required for them to join universities, research institutes, industry and services with a strong sense of innovation, development and entrepreneurial vision. Career opportunities Graduates in the University Master's Degree in Nanoscience, Materials and Processes: Chemical Technology at the Frontier are capable of working in: Research at universities and research institutes. The master's degree is a requirement for being admitted to a PhD programme and the key to a future career as a researcher. Research, development and innovation in industries based on new scientific and technical knowledge (biotechnology, microelectronics, telecommunications, energy storage, new materials, etc.) and traditional industries (chemical, pharmaceutical, biomedical, ceramics, textiles, etc.) interested in innovation. Management, control and strategic planning of nanotechnological techniques, products and processes in the electronics industry, telecommunications, biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmacology, etc. Language English Student Profile The Master’s Degree is designed for candidates holding a bachelor’s degree in any of the branches of the experimental sciences and technologies: chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, materials, quantum chemistry, biological chemistry, microbiology, etc.). It clearly prepares students for future careers in research. FIRST YEAR:... [-]

Master in Chemistry (MTech / MSc)

University of Johannesburg
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 4  February 2018 South Africa Johannesburg + 1 more

The primary purpose of the Master in Chemistry is to provide students with specialised advanced education and training while meeting the requirements of a specific research component so that students can master the required experimental and technological skills and necessary fieldwork competencies such as innovation, decision-making, strategic thinking and organisational skills. [+]

Masters in Chemical Engineering. MTech Chemistry The primary purpose of the MTech Chemistry is to provide students with specialised advanced education and training while meeting the requirements of a specific research component so that students can master the required experimental and technological skills and necessary fieldwork competencies such as innovation, decision-making, strategic thinking and organisational skills. A dissertation-based MTech Chemistry consists of a comprehensive study of a specialized area in the field of specialisation, reported on and submitted in the form of a dissertation at the end of the programme. The degree demands a high level of intellectual and theoretical knowledge and insight into problems related to the field of study and of critical reasoning, formulation, analysis and evaluation of a specific problem in the field of study. The M Tech degree is composed of a research project in a valid research area. A minimum mark of 50% for the research dissertation is taken as sufficient evidence that the candidate has demonstrated the appropriate research capability for this level. MSc in Chemistry The primary purpose of the MSc in Chemistry minor-dissertation with coursework is to provide students with specialised advanced education and training while meeting the requirements of a specific research component so that students can master the required experimental and technological skills and necessary fieldwork competencies such as innovation, decision-making, strategic thinking and organizational skills. A minor-dissertation with coursework MSc in Chemistry consists of a minimum of 120 credits of research at level 8 in the form of a... [-]